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Father DeSmet came out to our camp; he gave us a little tobacco and told me to tell the truth and I love him. I told him I did not want trouble with the whites, but that we should live quietly. ‒BULL OWL, FORT RICE, JULY 2, 1868

I truly believe that this article ... marked, in stone, that Natives were consciously and voluntarily giving up their old way of life for something completely new and different. ‒LUCY KEITH, CHEYENNE RIVER SIOUX TRIBE, 2019

If the US withdraws the professionals associated with the buildings in Article 4, they were to make sure the community had the necessary blacksmith, seamstress, miller, and agricultural services. Natives were then to be educated to carry on these necessities. ‒PAUL SZABO, ROSEBUD SIOUX TRIBE, 2019

This piece represents the way Lakotas of 1868 saw the world and presented themselves with power adornment. They were imbued with pride, confidence and conviction and eventually moved bravely to the future with this treaty and now we are here. Today, Lakota men wear minimal adornment, maybe a Bolo-tie or pendant. But when I see historical pictures of ancestral adornment, I am inspired by their self-portrayal and identity with creativity and spiritual intelligence. ‒JHONDUANE GOES IN CENTER, OGLALA SIOUX TRIBE, 2019


If the US withdraws the professionals associated with the buildings in Article 4, then it must add an additional sum for education.

ARTICLE 9. At any time after ten years from the making of this treaty, the United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided for, but in case of such withdrawal, an additional sum thereafter of ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education of said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and regulations for the expenditure of said sum as will best promote the educational and moral improvement of said tribes.